SUPPORT FOR THE PREPARATION OF OESTRUS AND REPRODUCTION
New complementary feed, for both dogs and cats, of both sexes, formulated and recommended for the preparation of the oestrus and reproduction.
With the definition Parnut (or PARNUTS "Food for particular Nutritional Purposes),are intended those" functional foods "that include a wide and heterogeneous group of food products, characterized by the fact that they have specific beneficial properties. In fact they are able to confer specific health effects to the diet, beyond the simple nutritional value.To allow this, functional foods are enriched with particular beneficial substances (such as vitamins, minerals, bioactive peptides, plant extracts, etc.) useful to achieve the intended purpose. In this case, the product is specially designed and formulated to support the animal in a phase of life in which specific nutritional inputs are required: reproduction.
|Characterizing ingredients per 1 tablet of 1,5 g
|L - Arginine
|L - Carnitine
|Lycopene (from Tomato)
More about product
Proteins are substances containing C carbon (51-55%), O oxygen (21.5-23.5%), H hydrogen (6.5 - 7.3%), N nitrogen (15.5 - 18%) and small amounts of sulfur (0.1 to 2.5%) and / or P phosphorus (0.1 to 1.5%), some may also contain traces of Fe, Cu and Zn. They represent the essential constituents of all cells. In addition to the plastic function, they expose the catalytic (enzymes constituents), regulating the chemical reactions that take place in the cell. From a nutritional point of view, they contribute to a greater extent, compared to other nutritive elements, to shape the organism and to supply the material for the productions (milk, eggs, wool, etc.). Therefore, animals need an adequate supply of proteins through nutrition; in order to re-establish the altered energy balance as a result of consumption during vital activities. From the hydrolysis of proteins the basic units of proteins are obtained: the amino acids.
The known amino acids are numerous, but frequently only 23 are found in the hydrolysates of food proteins. The complex protein molecules present in the tissues and circulating liquids, in plants and animals, are all formed by a very high number of one or different amino acids and therefore the approximately 20 amino acids existing in nature, combining each other can give rise to a very high number of proteins, each with its own characteristics. Of the 23 amino acids that can make up the most diverse proteins, about 13 (non-essential or biosynetizable amino acids) can be synthesized by the animal organism; the other 10-12 (essential or abiosynthetic) must be given to them as they can not be directly synthesized by the body.
L-CARNITINE – important nutrient for animal health: it has the fundamental role of transporting essential fatty acids; without L - carnitine fatty acids could not be transformed into energy, necessary for normal daily activities and for the proper functioning of the immune system, especially in the case of very active animals. Especially favors the motility of sperm in relation to the role of energy source "ready to use", and is also used as a protector of the joints and cardiac functions.
In particular, Carnitine improves male fertility with beneficial effects on spermatozoa in terms of counts, concentration, mobility and integrity. Spermatozoa, to perform their functions, require a lot of energy that is supplied by long chain fatty acids. These must be brought into the cells through the carnitine. So a lack of availability of Carnitine is a factor that limits the ability of spermatozoa to generate energy.
L-ARGININE – amino acid precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by all the tissues of the body and performs fundamental functions of the cardiovascular system, of the immune system and the nervous system.
In particular, arginine*1 is a source of nitric oxide useful for the process of capacitation (ability to fertilize) and for the acrosome reaction (changes of the sperm head that allow it to enter the egg to fertilize it) of the spermatozoa.
Supplementation based on L-arginine is useful in the treatment of some forms of infertility.
Arginine helps to maintain excellent sperm mobility which requires the presence of putrescine, spermicidin and spermine, three polyamides in the production of which arginine plays an essential role. A very interesting study by Shafer et al (1997)*2 has shown that arginine also improves sperm morphology by reporting that the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa and progressive motility are directly related.
Even in normal-fertile dogs with normal spermiogram arginine brings an increase in sperm motility. This finding can be useful, for example, in subjects whose ejaculates are destined for conservation through refrigeration or freezing.
TAURINE - is found as a free amino acid in animal tissues: meat, poultry, fish and crustaceans are particularly rich; while it is completely absent in the plant world. In most of the mammals can be synthesized from methionine and cysteine but not in cats; moreover, since it has a much higher requirement than the other animals, it is very sensitive to a lack of it in the diet. For this, especially cats, must be fed with diets rich in taurine.
The deficiency leads to a series of alterations affecting reproductive activity, especially in females; conjugation of bile acids with a consequent decrease in the absorption of vitamins and fats; on the retina (central retinal degeneration) with possible loss of vision and of the heart (dilated cardiomyopathy) with decreased muscular contractility and consequent heart failure.
In particular for the reproductive function a research by Cornell University has shown that if a taurine-free diet is given to laboratory mice, these have a high probability of being sterile because their sperms have important alterations, especially in the tail. These alterations disappeared after the administration of taurine in the diet.
The microelements are essential for animal feeding; Important aspect is that they can not be synthesized (unlike other nutrients) from the animal and therefore must be present in the ration in quantities sufficient to satisfy the needs. They are protective principles as they play a major role in the control of animal metabolism as constituents of the prosteical group of numerous enzymes. Moreover, some of them carry out enzyme activators functions and enter the genesis of hormones and vitamins.
SELENIUM – selenium is an essential mineral, at minimal concentrations it exerts auxinic action and reduces the effects of vitamin E deficiency. The antioxidant action carried out by selenium is due to the fact that it enters the constitution of the enzyme glutathione-peroxodase, whose function is to remove the excess oxygen preventing the formation of peroxides. Selenium deficiency may be concomitant with that of vitamin E; some diseases, although not caused by selenium deficiency, respond positively to its administration such as weaning crisis, sterility for fetal reabsorption, placental retention of infectious origin. It is also a trace element useful as an antioxidant, since it counteracts free radicals and maintains the elasticity of the tissues.
In particular, in the reproductive function, selenium positively influences the integrity of the sperm and protects them from oxidative stress, besides it plays a primary role in the metabolism of the thyroid hormone.
ZINC – zinc is an essential mineral; distributed mainly in hairs, feathers, bones and teeth. Is situated always linked to proteins and sometimes becomes part of the enzymes. It is absorbed (not all that contained in the ration) in the intestinal tract and high amounts of calcium inhibit its use. It participates in the activity of carbonic anhydrase, involved in gaseous exchanges between tissues; participates in the mechanism responsible for bone calcification, is involved in the activities of phosphatases, pancreatic amylase and insulin synthesis. Zinc is therefore essential for growth, for keratinization of the skin and hair, for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis and for the normal functionality of the testes and seminiferous tubules.
The sperm contains high levels of zinc which is necessary for the synthesis of the membrane and the tail of the spermatozoa. Without a good supply of this element the sperm will not reach normal maturation and will not have sufficient strength and motility. In addition, testosterone will also be ineffective as zinc is involved in hormone production.
Zinc has a fundamental role in the regulation of hormones in the female reproductive system. In fact it is essential for the synthesis of estrogens and progesterone. A lack of these hormones leads to a reduction in female fertility.
Vitamins are bioregolators of great importance as they preside, together with the hormones, to carry out all the physiological processes both directly and indirectly through enzymatic mechanisms. On the basis of solubility, they are classified as fat-soluble, which dissolve in fats and in apolar solvents; and water-soluble (they are not accumulated in the body, so it is essential to introduce them daily through the diet) which dissolve in water and in polar solvents. All vitamins are responsible for specific tasks and, their deficiency, can cause dysfunctionality.
VITAMIN A – liposoluble vitamin, present in two forms: vitamin A1 or retinol, prevalent in mammals and marine fishes and vitamin A2, common in freshwater fish. Produced starting from carotene (yellow-orange vegetable pigment), present in all chlorophyll tissues, in various seeds and fruits. The conversion of provitamin into vitamin occurs mainly in the intestine (in a small part also in the liver and in the mammary gland). Vitamin A intervenes in the maintenance of the visual capacity since it is an integral part of the rods of the retina rods. Another function performed by this vitamin is that epithelium - protector; This activity is useful above all in the mucosal secretion tissues of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital system, thus preserving and inhibiting the formation of keratins (the keratinization of epithelia is a degenerative process that leads to a decrease in cellular permeability and nutritional exchanges; to epithelial desquamation and to ulcerative processes with consequent possible infections). But above all, vitamin A exerts a notable influence on fertility. Actually, it acts both in synergy with the progesterone and as an antagonist between the same and the estrogens. The ovarian function is altered by hypovitaminosis conditions, since follicles can become persistent with possible cystic degeneration. The keratinizing effect, mentioned above, can also involve the endometrium and damage the development of the placenta with possible fetal malformations or more frequently, embryonic death.
VITAMIN E – Vitamin E (liposoluble) also called alpha-tocopherol (from the Greek: bring children) also called vitamin of fertility. Its function is antioxidant, that is, it has a scavenger effect against free radicals and various heavy metals such as lead and mercury. It is very common in the plant world, especially in the germs of cereals and related oils and in the green parts of all plants. In animal tissues, vitamin E is contained in small doses; except for the placenta and the hypophysis that are particularly rich. It performs important functions on the reproductive sphere, both male and female. This effect is not directly the expression of a biological mechanism carried out by the vitamin (whose fundamental task, in the living animal cell, is the physiological antioxidant "by excellence", which protects vitamin A and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from phenomena self-oxidation); it seems more like that carries out a preventive action against early abortion and an action against some forms of sterility. This vitamin also participates in synthesis and metabolic processes; it is endowed with surfactant properties and is indispensable for the genesis of many enzymes and coenzymes, for the synthesis of ascorbic acid and nucleic acids. It is also able to increase the body's tolerance to toxic substances. Eventual symptoms of deficiency are resent on the genital sphere and may also be due to a lack of selenium or the presence of high amounts of fat, especially if rancid.
- positively influences male fertility by improving the density, morphology and motility of spermatozoa and protect them from oxidative stress. This element has a structure similar to that of vitamins but can not be produced by the body and therefore must be taken with the diet.
- belongs to a family of substances called ubiquinones, lipophilic compounds, involved in electron transport and mitochondrial energy production. It has an antioxidant action on the cellular and mitochondrial membranes, exerting a protective function. Radical oxidant species exert a well-defined role in the pathogenesis of infertility. The beneficial function of coenzyme Q10 in energy metabolism at the level of sperm structures, and the relative role of antioxidant, are the basis of normal production of seminal fluid.
In the past, all the herbs and plants (annual or perennial trees or shrubs) used in the "workshops" of the apothecaries were called "officinals". Today herbs and medicinal plants are those used to preserve the well-being of humans and animals; they can be used as such in the kitchen, as spices; in the preparation of herbal teas, or work with specific procedures for the production of food supplements, veterinary, cosmetics and other products. For each officinal plant, the part used (leaves, flowers, seeds, bark, roots, etc.) is called "drug". The drug contains the phytocomplex, ie the set of active ingredients that characterize the properties of the plant, which can not be reproduced by chemical synthesis. The synergistic work of the active ingredients of the phytocomplex ensures the plant a series of contemporary actions, which the individual component does not possess.
SPIRULINA ALGAE rich in vitamins, minerals and proteins, for its anti-oxidant properties it is fundamental for a correct fertility both for males and females, especially in older subjects.
Scientifically known as Arthrospira, it mainly lives in the sub-tropical Spirulinaadolci Algae waters. It has a blue-green color and the typical spiral shape has given it its name. Considered one of the most complete foods on the planet, it contains all the essential amino acids, is composed of 60% protein and has the highest concentration of beta-carotene, vitamin B12, iron and minerals in addition to the rare essential fatty acid GLA (gamma-linolenic acid ). It has, therefore, a unique phytonutrient content, which have the function of strengthening the immune system for the wealth of antioxidants, promoting cellular health and, thanks to the contained chlorophyll, promote a detoxifying action. The main fields of use of the Spirulina algae in animals are, therefore, the integration in case of diseases caused by malnutrition, for the restoration of liver activity, for the healing of ulcers, in the reduction of allergic sensitivity and in detoxification from heavy metals. Precisely because of its chelating function (which "retains" heavy metals and favors their elimination without that they express their harmful functions), spirulina is an excellent ally in counteracting infertility. Through feeding, without realizing it, it can happen that the animal ingest small quantities of more or less heavy metals (not immediately harmful as food poisoning, but that certainly, accumulating, do not favor the normal functionality of the 'body); accumulations that can lead, in the long run, to dysfunctionality related to the reproductive sphere. But thanks to the action of seaweed, which combines its antioxidant function to that of "sweeping" of metals, it is possible to reduce these effects. As shown by a study that shows how the association of the antioxidant and chelating functions of the algae are valid to combat damage related to the presence of metals in the body*3.
CURCUMA – curcuma longa, also called Indian saffron. From its rhizome we derive the active ingredients such as curcuminoids, among which, the most active is represented by curcumin. It has powerful anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and pain-relieving properties. Turmeric is considered one of the most effective carminative plants (ie against flatulences) and has powerful digestive properties that promote intestinal transit, stimulating the secretion of gastric juices. In the same way, the gallbladder also benefits, favoring the biliary flow and acting as a protector for the liver. The presence of minerals and vitamins in turmeric make it a powerful antioxidant. In particular, it is able to detoxify the body and prevent cellular oxidation by counteracting free radicals. Because of its strong antioxidant action, various studies have shown correlations between this ability and the possibility of treating various diseases both with the single use of curcumin and in synergy with other components. The first study *4 sought to determine the functionality of the combination of medicinal extracts, such as curcumin, with vitamin E; as a possible herbal alternative for the treatment of breast cancer. It has been shown that the combination of curcumin (72 mg / kg body weight / day) with vitamin E (200 IU / per capita / day) has a therapeutic potential as an anti-tumor, characterized by decreased estrogen concentration in the blood, by the increase of progesterone concentration and the disappearance of nodules in the mammary tissues of cancer-infected animals. A second study*5 highlights how turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) can improve rabbit reproduction, ovarian function, growth and vitality of the newborn. It has proven effective as it has affected the length and ovarian weight; increased the number of primary follicles (> 32.5% compared to the control group), as well as the diameter, secondary (+ 41.4%) and tertiary (+ 97.1%). It has also increased the number of live births (+ 21.0%) and weaned (+ 25.0%); and reduced the number of stillborns. In vitro, it was found that ovaries of rabbits treated with turmeric released more progesterone (+ 85.7%) and less testosterone (-87.0%) and leptin (-29.0%) compared to rabbits ovaries control.
CINNAMON – cinnamon has had since ancient times a wide range of uses and has been considered very valuable spice. The same ancient Egyptians used it in embalming; wide use in Chinese medicine is also known. The typical aroma and taste of cinnamon are characteristics due to an aldehyde contained in the essential oil that can be obtained from the maceration of the Cinnamomum bark. From Cinnamomum zeylanicum you get the most valuable spice, but another well known and widespread type is the cinnamon of Cinnamomum cassia. In many cases the commercial spice is of the latter type or a mixture of different qualities. The essential oil of cinnamon contains about 70% of cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldehyde), known as IUPAC 3-phenylprop-2-enal; as often happens for the essential oil components, cinnamaldehyde shows antibacterial and antifungal properties. In recent years the functions of cinnamaldehyde are being studied in greater detail, especially in relation to the sphere of reproduction / fertility / gestation. As a study *6 reveals, in fact, the use of cinnamaldehyde seems to have a hypoglycaemic action against gestational diabetes, enhancing the secretion and sensitivity of insulin through the activation of the antioxidant defense system; suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and excess expression of the PPARγ gene. Another study highlights the correlation between cinnamaldehyde and the secretion of progesterone *7: it is shown how exposure to cinnamaldehyde has increased the release of progesterone while the concentration of testosterone has decreased; suggesting that cinnamaldehyde selectively induces progesterone production and inhibits testosterone production in adrenal cells.
Cinnamon is, lastly, considered a powerful natural antioxidant, stimulates blood circulation and helps to fight cholesterol. Not only that, it also has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, stimulant, digestive properties and is also an anti-fungal. Another benefit attributed to this spice is the ability to increase energy, vitality and promote brain development.
LYCOPENE – Lycopene is a carotenoid responsible for the red color of ripe tomato and other yellow and red Lycopenepigments characteristic of some fruits and vegetables. It has a high antioxidant capacity, as it "captures" free radicals, acting on cell membranes and lipopotreins, molecules that carry fat in the blood. Since it is lipophilic, it is more concentrated in the fraction of the LDL and VLDL lipoproteins of the plasma; it is also present in the adrenal glands, in the liver and in the testicles. It also intervenes in the regulation of the immune system responses and the action of hormones; it also improves and facilitates communication between cells.
*1 (O'Flaherty C. e al - L-arginine promotes capacitation and acrosome reaction in bovine spermatozoa. - Biochim Biophys Acta 1674.215-221, 2004)
*2 (Scafer S., e al - The influence of frequent semen collection on the semen quality of beagle-dogs.- Deutsche tierarztliche wochenschrift, 104 (I): 26-29,1997).
*3 Nutrition. 2011 May;27(5):582-9. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2010.04.002. Epub 2010 Aug 13. - Gad A.S., Khadrawy Y.A., El-Nekeety A.A., Mohamed S.R., Hassan N.S., Abdel-Wahhab M.A. Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of whey protein and Spirulina in rats.
*4 Advances in Health Sciences Research - Proceedings of the 1st International Conference in One Health (ICOH 2017) - Herawati Herawati, Aulia Firmawati, Dyah Ayu Oktavianie Ardhiana Pratama, Anna Roosdiana. Potency Combination of Curcumin (Curcuma longa Linn.) and Vitamin E Toward Estrogen and Progesterone Profile on Rat (Ratttus norvegicus) Mammary Cancer Model.
*5 Animal. 2018 Jun;12(6):1242-1249. doi: 10.1017/S175173111700235X. Epub 2017 Oct 26. - Sirotkin A.V., Kadasi A., Stochmalova A., Balazi A., Földesiová M., Makovicky P., Chrenek P., Harrath A.H. Effect of turmeric on the viability, ovarian folliculogenesis, fecundity, ovarian hormones and response to luteinizing hormone of rabbits.
*6 Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Apr;88:52-60. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.054. Epub 2017 Jan 13. - Hosni A.A., Abdel-Moneim A.A., Abdel-Reheim E.S., Mohamed S.M., Helmy H. Cinnamaldehyde potentially attenuates gestational hyperglycemia in rats through modulation of PPARγ, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.
*7 Life SCI.2010 Jun 5;86(23-24):894-8.doi:10.1016/j.lfjs.2010.04.009.Epub 2010 Apr 25.-Iwaoka Y., Hashimoto R., Koizumi H., Yu J., Okabe T. Selective stimulation by cinnamaldehyde of progesteron secretion in human adrenal cells.
Tablets of 1,5 g
|dogs and cats from 0 - 5 kg
||1/4 tablet per day
|dogs and cats from 5 - 15 kg
||1/2 tablet per day
|dogs from 15 - 35 kg
||3/4 tablet per day
|dogs over 35 kg
||1 tablet per day
Recommended period of use:
Female - from the last stage of gestation until the next gestation is confirmed
Males - during periods of reproductive activity
60 tablets of 1,5 g
Instructions for use:
Administer the number of tablets together with the daily food ration or directly in the animal's mouth. Before using the product consult the veterinary.